[31] According to Pliny, the Pompeii cabbage, which could not stand cold, is "taller, and has a thick stock near the root, but grows thicker between the leaves, these being scantier and narrower, but their tenderness is a valuable quality". By selecting for fatter stems, the variant plant known as, European preference emerged for eating immature buds, selection for, Further selection in Belgium in lateral bud led to, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 21:30. capitata. tuba, var. A hardy plant in its uncultivated form, its high tolerance for salt and lime, and its intolerance of competition from other plants, typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel,[2] and the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight. Back to genus Brassica; Plantopedia: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, USDA Hardiness Zone or Origin; Photo Gallery English: Cabbage Tagalog: Repolyo. The scientific name of Red Cabbage is the botanical name or formal name. Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan. [76] In the United States, cabbage is used primarily for the production of coleslaw, followed by market use and sauerkraut production. [9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. [18], There are several Guinness Book of World Records entries related to cabbage. Links. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. [6] It is also a part of common names for several unrelated species. sabauda). [85] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine. Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. Cabbage centre grub, cabbage webworm. [51] Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages. However, genetic analysis is consistent with feral origin of this population, deriving from plants escaped from field and gardens. [10] The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche ("head"), from the Picard dialect of Old French. The cultivars of B. oleracea are grouped by developmental form into seven major cultivar groups, of which the Acephala ("non-heading") group remains most like the natural wild cabbage in appearance: In places such as the Channel Islands and Canary Islands, where the frost is minimal and plants are thus freed from seasonality, some cultivars, known as Jersey cabbages, can grow up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) tall. ... Members of the brassica family, i.e., cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and radish, but also amaranth and eggplant. [46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). The common name of this plant in Spanish is Repollo rojo. Cabbage can be stored the longest at −1 to 2 °C (30 to 36 °F) with a humidity of 90–100 percent; these conditions will result in up to six months of longevity. PAV and AVI haplotypes are the most common, though other haplotypes exist that confer intermediate bitter taste sensitivity (AAI, AAV, AVV, and PVI). [92], This article is about the vegetable. [8] He reports the antipathy of the cabbage and the grape vine, for the ancients believed cabbages grown near grapes would impart their flavour to the wine. December 3, 2020. cabbage palm scientific name [37] Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots. However, it is highly dispersiv… [60], When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. [53] Excessive water and excessive heat can also cause cultivation problems. [49] Carl Peter Thunberg reported that cabbage was not yet known in Japan in 1775. Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith R, Subbarao KV, Westerdahl BB. Cabbage is a dense, leafy vegetable that grows biennially in cool climates. [37] The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. [54], In 2018, world production of cabbages (combined with other brassicas) was 69.4 million tonnes, led by China with 48% of the world total (table). Napa cabbage, also called celery cabbage (B. rapa, variety pekinensis), forms a tight head of crinkled light green leaves. This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Manuscript illuminations show the prominence of cabbage in the cuisine of the High Middle Ages,[24] and cabbage seeds feature among the seed list of purchases for the use of King John II of France when captive in England in 1360,[45] but cabbages were also a familiar staple of the poor: in the lean year of 1420 the "Bourgeois of Paris" noted that "poor people ate no bread, nothing but cabbages and turnips and such dishes, without any bread or salt". It contains over 330 genera and about 3,700 species, according to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Cabbage is a popular vegetable that is a relative to mustard greens and also to the turnip family. Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.[61]. Leave a reply. [40], The characteristic flavor of cabbage is caused by glucosinolates, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides. The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance. [62], Due to its high level of nutrient requirements, cabbage is prone to nutrient deficiencies, including boron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. In certain climates, cabbage can be planted at the beginning of the cold period and survive until a later warm period without being induced to flower, a practice that was common in the eastern US. Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. At the end of Antiquity cabbage is mentioned in De observatione ciborum ("On the Observance of Foods") of Anthimus, a Greek doctor at the court of Theodoric the Great, and cabbage appears among vegetables directed to be cultivated in the Capitulare de villis, composed c. 771-800 that guided the governance of the royal estates of Charlemagne. Members of the Brassicaceae Family (Thumbnails): Barbarea verna. It is an edible plant of the Family Brassicaceae (or Cruciferae). [15], Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability. [67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. Napa cabbage doesn't look like head cabbages; it has long, light green leaves that flower off of thick, white stalks. Brassica oleracea (Capitata Group), commonly known as cabbage, and Brassica oleracea (Acephala Group), commonly known as kale, are cool weather vegetables that are grown for harvest of their edible leaves. [15] Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking,[73] while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. Symptoms & Life Cycle. [40] The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. Cabbage in Spanish can be different from Cabbage in English. In its uncultivated form, it is called wild cabbage, and is native to coastal southern and western Europe. This was about 40% of all the recorded Cabbage's in the USA. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; Cato and Elder praised this vegetable for its medicinal properties. The main axis, short and thick. [80] Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. Raw cabbage is 92% water, 6% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and contains negligible fat (table). The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. [71], Cabbage consumption varies widely around the world: Russia has the highest annual per capita consumption at 20 kg (44 lb), followed by Belgium at 4.7 kg (10 lb 6 oz) and the Netherlands at 4.0 kg (8 lb 13 oz). By the 18th century, it was commonly planted by both colonists and native American Indians. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 10:48. As of 2012[update], the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms (138.25 lb). Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. [1], The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". KangKong – Scientific name: Ipomea aquatica Torsk. Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. Cabbage weights generally range from 500 to 1,000 grams (1 to 2 lb). It was first observed in North America in 1854, in Illinois, but had spread to Florida and the Rocky Mountains by 1883, and was reported from British Columbia by 1905. Brassica was considered by some Romans a table luxury,[37] although Lucullus considered it unfit for the senatorial table. Bok-choy or "Chinese-cabbage" is a long cylindrical shaped leafy vegetable, comprising of short, compact leaves. The seeds, like any other cabbage, can be used for sprouting. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. Vegetable Scientific Name / Botanical Name / Species Genus Family Common … Family: Brassicaceae ⁄ Cruciferae – Mustard family Genus: Brassica L. – mustard Species: Brassica oleracea L. – cabbage [10][11], According to the Triangle of U theory, B. oleracea is very closely related to five other species of the genus Brassica.[12]. The diamondback moth is probably of European origin but is now found throughout the Americas and in Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Brassera oleracea is the taxonomical name for head cabbage, and it is further classified as the cultivar group Capitata. [41] Cabbage continued to figure in the materia medica of antiquity as well as at table: in the first century AD Dioscorides mentions two kinds of coleworts with medical uses, the cultivated and the wild,[10] and his opinions continued to be paraphrased in herbals right through the 17th century. Revised continuously. The fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. [27], Cabbage was probably domesticated later in history than Near Eastern crops such as lentils and summer wheat. The family contains well-known species, such as Brassica oleracea , Brassica rapa , Brassica napus , Raphanus sativus , Armoracia rusticana , Arabidopsis thaliana , and many others. glabra Regel. Brassica oleracea is native to coastal southern and western Europe. [40][72], Cabbage is prepared and consumed in many ways. [14] Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to highly dissected; some varieties have a waxy bloom on the leaves. [55], Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested. Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. It is native to Coastal Southern and Western Europe. Thus, bitter taste perception may affect dietary behaviors by influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal regulation. Ornamental cabbage typ… Internal tip burn occurs when the margins of inside leaves turn brown, but the outer leaves look normal. [77] Cooked cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste. Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads. [33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. Early cabbage reaches maturity in just over 40 days and has a small, tight head, while the late variant takes longer to grow — almost 90 days — and has a much larger head. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). When stored under less ideal conditions, cabbage can still last up to four months. Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes. acephala)[3] is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, Brassicaceae. [17] Scientific research into the genetic modification of B. oleracea crops, including cabbage, has included European Union and United States explorations of greater insect and herbicide resistance. Scientific name: Sabal Palmetto Also known as: Cabbage palm, cabbage palmetto, Carolina palmetto Size: Averages about 45 feet tall, but can grow taller in the wild Lifespan: Dating Sabal palms is more difficult than other species because they do not have traditional growth rings. September 2012. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Cabbage Risk Assessment Introduction and Summary", "Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cabbage&oldid=996239071, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large. Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient. Genetic analysis of nine wild populations on the French Atlantic coast indicated their common feral origin, deriving from plants escaped from fields and gardens.[3]. Vernalization allows the plant to grow to an adequate size before flowering. [22], Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". There are several cultivar groups of cabbage, each including many cultivars: Some sources only delineate three cultivars: savoy, red and white, with spring greens and green cabbage being subsumed under the last. Brassica rapa recently replaced B. campestris as the scientific name, as this species is not botanically different from the turnip. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Common Name. It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognizable as being members of the same genus, let alone species. Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. In a 100 gram reference amount, raw cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K, containing 44% and 72%, respectively, of the Daily Value (DV). [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. Savoy cabbage needs well drained soil in a cool climate to grow. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. The preference for the eating of the leaves led to the selection of plants with larger leaves being harvested and their seeds planted for the next growth. Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. The leaves are fleshier and thicker than other Brassica species—an adaptation that helps it store water and nutrients in its difficult growing environment. The cabbage is a native of Mediterranean region. It is descended from the wild cabbage (B. oleracea var. Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years. Cabbages are usually green, but they can als Leaves vary in color, from the common light yellowish green to dark green and dark red. Rupr.’ was suitable as the scientific name for Chinese cabbage, and we classified B. rapa var. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. These receptors influence release of hormones involved in appetite regulation, such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, and therefore may influence caloric intake and the development of obesity. In temperate and sub-tropical regions, and also in the tropics at higher elevations. rapa). The Greeks were convinced that cabbages and grapevines were inimical, and that cabbage planted too near the vine would impart its unwelcome odor to the grapes; this Mediterranean sense of antipathy survives today.[36]. In pepper spot, tiny black spots occur on the areas between the veins, which can increase during storage. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses. 7 Replies. The outer leaves are trimmed, and any diseased, damaged, or necrotic leaves are removed. cabbage palm scientific name. [90] Shigella species are able to survive in shredded cabbage. sabauda[2] or var. List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica, "Growing broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and other cole crops in Wisconsin", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2018", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2017", "Corriher's Compendium of Ingredients and Cooking Problems", "USDA database table for raw cabbage per 100 g", "A novel mechanism of indole-3-carbinol effects on breast carcinogenesis involves induction of Cdc25A degradation", "Chapter IV. [32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. Print with name - Print without name. They are harvested by cutting the stalk just below the bottom leaves with a blade. Preference led to further artificial selection of kale plants with more tightly bunched leaves, or terminal bud. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). [5] A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, and has many of the same uses. Repolyo (Cabbage) – Scientific name: Brassica oleracea Linn. [4], "Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. capitata,[1] var. When people think of chocolate, they usually think of the sweet shop and high calorie chocolate bars. 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